Give Men the Green Light to Mentor Women

Written by W. Brad Johnson & David Smith

When it comes to the status of women in the workplace, there is good news and not-so-good news. The good news first: Women are entering the workplace in increasing numbers – including more than half of management positions across organizations and including traditionally male professions. Moreover, businesses and organizations with more women in the leadership suite are more effective, balanced and competitive. The not-so-good-news? Many organizations continue to struggle when it comes to retaining and promoting the talented women they work so hard to recruit and train.

One of the key factors to dialing down the attrition spigot and retaining talented personnel of either gender is access to high-quality mentoring, particularly in the earliest moments of one’s career. Volumes of research leave little doubt that well-mentored employees are more loyal, satisfied, professionally committed and ultimately successful in their careers. Although critical in the career trajectories of both genders, mentorship proves to be even more crucial for women, particularly in male-dominated professions. In our study of high-ranking women across a wide range of professions, we discovered a striking and recurring theme: the profound importance of influential people who recognized their talent early, praised their accomplishments and then championed their promotion within the organization.

Here is the problem: Although mentorship is particularly vital for women, women report far more difficulty securing mentors than their male counterparts. Sometimes, the problem is linked to a competitive culture and out-and-out disdain for collegiality, including programs focused on developing future leaders. Sure, some organizations offer a few prospective female mentors in the upper echelons of management and leadership. But far more often, the real problem underlying lower rates of mentoring for women has to do with men. For a variety of reasons, senior men are simply missing in action when it comes to initiating and maintaining strong developmental relationships with junior women. For myriad reasons, some men are just plain reluctant to mentor women at work.

There are several reasons men don’t step in to pull up and push forward promising junior women. First, some men cling to the outdated myth that only women can mentor other women. Ultimately a copout, such thinking paints women as an alien species – far too mysterious or complex for a man to decipher and engage in a helping relationship.

Second, some men are anxious about engaging in close relationships with women. These men can experience an anxiety-provoking approach-avoidance quandary with women at work. On one hand, they want to be helpful and enjoy closeness in relationships with female colleagues. On the other hand, they react with anxiety and then avoidance if any feelings of attraction enter the equation. For these men, a caring and companionate, but nonsexual, relationship with a woman may be a novelty.

A third obstacle to male-female mentorships is the – often unconscious – deployment of old scripts for interacting with women. Most often, men call up scripts for familiar roles such as father/daughter, son/mother, or knight/damsel-in-distress. Although familiar and comfortable, these roles can obviously undermine a healthy adult mentorship at work, often disempowering women and ultimately undermining their sense of autonomy and competence. Similarly, some men harbor implicit gender stereotypes that paint women as nice, caring and nurturing, but simply not cut out for the demands of leadership.

Finally, there are more than a few men who become anxious about perceptions in the workplace. For these men, the specter of gossip and sideways glances when they endeavor to help a junior woman at work is just not worth the risk.

What’s the solution? Organizations of all stripes have to send men a different set of messages – including performance expectations – about mentoring both men and women well and often. In a phrase, we have to give men the green light to mentor talented women around them.

How can this happen? First, senior men need to mentor women transparently and frequently. Second, their performance as an inclusive mentor and talent developer must be included in routine performance evaluations. Third, men need preparation (training) to soar in the mentor role. Like anything else, competence in the mentor role is iterative and evolving. Men love tools, so give them a mentorship tool-box that includes an opportunity to understand the experiences of women at work. Finally, loudly and publicly reinforce men who mentor women well.

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Stop Trying To Fix Women. Mentor Them Instead

How Gender Humility Helps

By David Smith & W. Brad Johnson. 

For far too long, businesses (men) have tried to solve workplace gender bias, inequality, and poor recruitment and retention of women by “fixing” women (i.e., employing varied but consistently fruitless efforts to shape them in men’s image). Strategies to press women into male molds persist despite good evidence that gender-diverse workplaces are more effective in bottom-line terms.

Unfortunately, such strategies are also visible when some men attempt to mentor women at work. Research on mentoring relationships in organizational settings reveals that gender-informed mentoring practices—mentoring that honors, even celebrates, the unique contributions of women to the workplace—often provide women with professional and personal benefits that can help level the playing field, enhance retention, and heighten the probability that women will ascend to leadership roles.
Here is the rub: men are not as likely to initiate a mentoring relationship with a woman and when they do, they often fall back on uniquely masculine “bro” mentoring strategies which often are less effective for women. Such “bro” strategies are ubiquitous to male relationships and tend to be based on competition, x-rated humor, backslaps, and a focus on tasks to the exclusion of all else. While they might work for many of the “dudes” down the hall, they may ultimately leave some women feeling misunderstood, further isolated, and forced to hide their genuine career ambitions and life priorities.
Men who mentor women well appreciate the barriers women face in achieving parity and being seriously considered for promotion to key leadership jobs. Excellent male mentors work to rein in their fixing and problem-solving tendencies. In Athena Rising: How and Why Men Should Mentor Women, we explore men’s professional relationships with women at work and how they can mentor in a gender-inclusive way. Rather than try to “fix” his mentee or mute her approach to work, a stellar male mentor learns to listen, appreciate, and then encourage and promote the women he mentors.
An excellent male mentor must first embody gender humility—the art of being self-aware, transparent, and humble about what you don’t know while demonstrating honest curiosity about a woman’s unique experience and current concerns. Our research with some of the most successful women across industries revealed a common theme in their career experiences—their male mentors consistently were able to meet these women where they were and worked to understand what each mentee needed to thrive in her career. If we can really listen to our mentees, then we start to understand how their experiences may have differed from our own. Only then can we begin to empathize with what could be a very different set of work experiences coming up through the ranks as a woman.
Why and how exactly could her experiences be all that different from the way we as men are perceived and compared at work?

  • She is much more likely to be perceived negatively for expressing certain emotions, such as anger or frustration, and might think twice about discussing her accomplishments (largely due to a “culture that mandates modesty” for women).
  • Because so many men aren’t bearing their fair share of the burden at home, she may experience greater demands outside of work than her male mentor and, therefore, greater tension about how to effectively balance career advancement with family life.
  • Her definition of career success may be quite different, with greater emphasis on intrinsically rewarding roles, self-development, and work–life effectiveness.
  • If she is a woman of color, she may have experienced double jeopardy in her life and career, working against both gender and race stereotypes. This is called intersectionality (here’s a primer for that).

You get the picture—her path to this point in her career and life is likely different in many ways from a man at the same company.
It may seem like a daunting challenge for some men to empathize with a female mentee’s unfamiliar life experiences. Similarly, it may be challenging for her to identify with a man as an important role model. We think men will find that employing a healthy dose of gender humility is helpful in cross-gender mentoring relationships. By maintaining a learning orientation with a mentee, mentors often find that they learn as much or more from their mentee as the mentee does from them.

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How Men Can Mentor Women Leaders

By W. Brad Johnson and Captain David Smith, U.S. Navy

When Brigadier General (ret) Dana Born was coming up through the ranksas an Air Force officer, she often sensed that her male colleagues expected her leadership style to be just like theirs: directive, commanding, and hierarchical. But General Born’s natural leadership style—like that of many women—was more collaborative, democratic, and inclusive. Although her unique leadership style was inarguably effective, she often felt that her male superiors evaluated her style as too relational and collegial for a senior officer.

It turns out that General Born’s experience is not uncommon. Decades of research on gender and leadership reveals that women find themselves between a rock and a hard place when it comes to leadership. On one hand, the women are wonderful stereotype suggests that most of us see women as understanding, kind, nurturing, and caring. Sounds good right? Not when it comes to leadership. Research shows that men and women see “real leaders” as action-oriented, dominant, competitive, self-sufficient, and willing to impose (his) will on others; characteristics we tend to associate with men. Of course, we all know men whose leadership style is more transformational. But men get a free pass when it comes to having a more flexible leadership style since their competence is assumed or based on potential compared to women who must prove themselves as a leader. So what’s a female leader to do? Enter the leadership double-bind faced by most women in western societies: She can be warm, friendly, and “nice” (embodying classically feminine traits we all expect from women at work) or she can be commanding, take charge, and kick ass, endeavoring to behave the way most of us expect leaders to act. If she chooses the former, she may be dismissed as unqualified to lead, but if she chooses the latter, she can risk the negative backlash and rejection experienced by many assertive women (yes, the iron bitch stereotype is alive and well).

Here is the problem: Businesses and organizations around the globe are engaged in a fierce battle for talent. Specifically, organizations are hungry for transformational leaders who score high on indices of social and emotional intelligence, value collaboration, and stimulate creativity through inspiration. In other words, institutions and companies are increasingly looking for leadership soft skills (e.g., empathy, approachability, and listening skills), the very behaviors that often come quite naturally to women. It should therefore come as no surprise to learn that organizations with women in crucial leadership positions perform better on key success markers than organizations with primarily male leadership.

How can organizations ensure that more women ascend to the upper echelons of leadership? Mentoring is one of the key ingredients. And quite often, key mentorships for a promising junior woman will be with male mentors. In many organizations, there are simply too few women in senior leadership positions to mentor rising female stars. And sometimes, women avoid mentoring junior women if the competition for the few jobs open to women is fierce.

Can men mentor women effectively? In our new book, Athena Rising: How and Why Men Should Mentor Womenwe show that the answer to that question is an unequivocal yes. Men have to mentor women deliberately and thoughtfully for organizations to thrive. So gentlemen, if you are committed to mentoring a rising Athena—a junior woman with terrific promise—here are some key strategies.

First, honor her authentic approach to leadership. Help her sharpen and refine it but don’t try to change it. Hundreds of studies on gender and leadership show that women tend to adopt a leadership style described as transformational and participative. In their relationships with team members, women leaders tend to be more empathic, patient, and inclined to put others first. When it comes to decision-making, women tend to be more inclusive and thoughtful about the impact of their decisions on others. Moreover, women are more inclined to use praise and to define winning in the plural; teams are credited with success, not individuals. Guys have got to champion these leadership strategies, not undermine them.

Second, never make her choose between being liked and respected in her role as leader. Obviously, this is a choice men rarely have to make. Remind her that she can be an excellent leader and be herself when compassion, caring, and collaboration are key elements of her style at work.

Finally guys, watch, listen and learn! If her leadership approach is working for her, get busy championing her, squash efforts by others to undermine her, and watch closely, there’s a good chance you’ll learn a thing or two about terrific leadership!

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It Takes a Few Good Men

By W. Brad Johnson and Captain David Smith, U.S. Navy

In the battle for talent, it is imperative that men do their part in mentoring women.

Recruiting, developing, and retaining talent must be an inclusive process. Men and women must have an equal shot at the top rungs of leadership. When it comes to gender, those organizations and professions that exclude or marginalize 50 percent of the workforce—including half of those people at the top of the curve on intellect and creativity—are doomed. Companies and organizations that include women, particularly in key leadership positions, are more effective, balanced, and geared for long-term success. Welcoming and promoting women increasingly is key to organizational survival. Research on bottom-line, dollars-and-cents outcomes reveals that gender diversity at all pay grades is crucial to efficiency, productivity, ingenuity, and mission success. 1

So why is the military struggling mightily to attract, retain, and promote women? Although repeal of the ground-combat exclusion policy and the notional opening of all combat communities to women constitutes a welcome policy shift, retention of women—especially in combat specialties—remains a vexing challenge for the Navy and Marine Corps. At present, women elect to remain in the Navy beyond their initial commitment at less than half the rate for men. And even when women do persist for 5–10 years, they leave the military profession at much higher rates than their male counterparts. Although the most popular explanation for women’s lower retention—adverse impact of a Navy career on family—is widespread, the fact is that men exiting the military often give the same explanation. 2 The truth is more complex and insidious. Face it; the response of some male-only combat specialties to the gender exclusion repeal has been frosty at best.

It is difficult enough for anyone to perform well in a combat-arms role without the stress of a toxic social environment. 3 The reality is that when women do get in the door in a traditionally male-only profession, they face deliberate exclusion or a possibly more painful disregard fueled by stereotypes, hyper-competitive masculine traditions, and sometimes out-and-out hostility toward women in the workplace. In part, this helps explain why the pipelines for women in the military, like those for women in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines at most universities, have been chronically leaky. 4

Among the most salient factors predicting retention and persistence of women in any profession is the presence of credible and inspiring role models—often senior women. For instance, the presence of female role models in career-relevant areas turns out to be key in inspiring women to enter and persist in traditionally male STEM careers. 5 The absence of credible female role models can weaken women’s self-efficacy, professional identity, and sense of belonging in a career field. 6

Of course, the rub here is the absence of senior women in many military specialties, particularly combat arms. If senior women are not yet present at senior ranks, can guys step in and successfully take up the slack? On this question there is reason to take heart. A recent study at the U.S. Naval Academy revealed that among female midshipmen, gender of the role model was simply not significant, as long as they had someone who took the time to notice and encouraged them. 7 This finding dovetails with evidence across organizations. Women report positive career aspirations when they have access to inspiring and caring role models and mentors, regardless of that person’s gender. 8

Mentorship of Women Is Key to Success

We have interviewed several highly accomplished and high-ranking women, in both the military and other fields. Among the most persistent themes in their stories was the profound importance of influential people who recognized their talent early, praised their accomplishments, and then championed their cause within the organization. In many cases, women who made it to the top in male-dominated organizations identified at least one—often several—key male mentors.

Mentors invest in the career progression and professional/personal development of mentees, often fulfilling essential roles such as challenge, counsel, guidance, sponsorship, support, affirmation, and advocacy. The best mentors are intentional and thoughtful about their role; they invest the time necessary to understand mentees’ unique developmental needs. 9 Four decades of research results leave no doubt that junior members of any profession fortunate enough to have strong mentoring accrue a number of consistent benefits in comparison to those without a mentor. These include greater retention, work satisfaction, professional competence, career motivation, organizational commitment, and ultimately, career success and recognition. 10 These findings extend to military settings where having a mentor tends to bolster one’s career, self-confidence, and willingness to mentor others in turn. 11

The military’s career paths and promotion system, often referred to as “up or out,” make it even more important that junior members of the profession receive excellent mentoring at the earliest stages of their careers. A recent study of senior leadership-school participants (enlisted and officer) at the Naval War College revealed that 91 percent had had at least one very significant mentor—with an average of 3.5 key mentors—in their naval careers. 12 And yes, 95 percent of those mentors were men.

Although mentorship appears even more critical to the success of women—especially in traditionally male-dominated professions—women consistently report a tougher time securing mentors. 13 Too often, men default to the hope that women can mentor women. But in many male-centric domains senior women are nowhere in sight at upper ranks. Even when they are, they live life in a spotlight, getting extra scrutiny at every turn, sometimes creating reluctance to mentor other women. Truth be told, the math does not work. With men occupying the lion’s share of leadership and supervisory positions, junior women will get mentored only if men step up, show up, and take the lead.

Some Men Are Reluctant to Mentor Women

If gender integration is a priority for the Navy and Marine Corps, if mentoring matters for women when it comes to retention, inclusion, and career success, if junior women have few senior women to turn to, and if the evidence shows that men can mentor women effectively, then why are women too often going without the kind of early career mentoring relationships that could persuade them to stay in the service and soar? A big part of the problem is what we call the reluctant male syndrome. Some men are reticent, timid, even phobic about entering into potentially game-changing developmental relationships with women at work. Reluctant men avoid women at work for a variety of reasons, mostly rooted in gender stereotypes or flat-out anxiety. Here are some of the major contributors to the syndrome:

• Persistent Gender Bias: At times, men’s unconsciously socialized perceptions about women leave them in a confusing bind. Often, they have been taught to perceive women as “nice,” compassionate, nurturing, and caring. Although this sounds positive, such perceptions can make it difficult or impossible to simultaneously view women as get-up, take-charge, and move-out leaders. These men cannot quite envision a woman leading in a combat specialty. As a result, they fail to provide women with the mentorship that could help them achieve that end. These men tend to see assertive and action-oriented males as excellent leaders while viewing similarly oriented women as abrasive, cold-hearted, and bossy.

• Discomfort with Nonsexual Intimate Relationships: Although loath to admit it, some men are uncertain about how to have close, connected, collegial relationships with a woman at work without enacting—or at least imagining—a romantic or sexual component. Sometimes these men have little experience with strong, intimate cross-sex friendships. And sometimes they do not know how to express fondness and closeness in a mentorship without trying to consummate the relationship sexually.

Feeling anxiety about their attraction to a mentee or feelings of intimacy, they distance themselves from the very women they are trying to mentor and promote. Of course, getting the cold-shoulder from a previously helpful male mentor can leave a woman feeling unworthy or somehow responsible for the sudden shift in his demeanor.

• “Manscripts” Get in the Way: Sometimes, the “scripts”—or gendered expectations about how men should treat women—get in the way. These are implicit messages about women transmitted to boys by their fathers, peers, and even the broader culture (e.g., girls are nice but weak; women are too thin-skinned to compete in the world of men; a woman needs a man to take care of her). When faced with women at work, men too often resort—sometimes unconsciously—to outdated and decidedly unhelpful relationship scripts such as chivalrous knight or protective father. But of course, trying to “protect” or “rescue” talented women can sabotage their opportunity to compete and prove themselves. Old manscripts can undermine a collegial mentorship and erode a woman’s credibility at work.

• Fear of Public Perceptions and Gossip: In one recent study of senior male executives (vice president and above), 64 percent acknowledged reluctance to be seen meeting alone with junior women. 14 A news article last year about women staffers on Capitol Hill reveals that they often are barred from ever being alone or—God forbid—ever being seen after hours with their male bosses for fear of rumors and bad publicity for the male legislators. 15 The truth is that some men are reluctant to mentor women for fear of social scrutiny. Sometimes, fear of rumors and gossip causes men to keep all junior women at arm’s length, effectively barring them from the sort of access their male peers take for granted and seriously diminishing the kind of frequent interaction that often leads to strong mentorship.

• Fear of Saying or Doing the Wrong Thing: In addition to worrying about what others might think, some men develop genuine anxiety about “slipping” and saying something that might be sexist or even harassing—or at least interpreted that way. Some worry their goodwill or interest will be misinterpreted as “coming on,” and frankly, some men worry they might indeed be doing just that. In response, they opt to ignore women, or at best create distant and sterile relationships with them.

• What Will My Spouse Think? Some men worry that, if their spouses or significant others discover they are working closely with someone of the opposite sex, jealousy and conflict will ensue at home. In our experience, this often has more to do with distrust and poor communication in a relationship. Of course, jealousy can be triggered or worsened when a man lacks transparency about whom he is mentoring or when he attempts to keep these relationships “secret” at work and on the homefront.

So what is the antidote for the reluctant male syndrome? The naval service desperately needs men to step up and deliberately and transparently mentor promising junior women in the same way they mentor men. Every warfare specialty and command needs a few good men to get the memo about the salience of good mentorship to real gender integration in the military. These are men who are all in, guys who understand that confident and effective mentors do not wait around for female rising stars to seek them out for career guidance. Too often, women have been socialized not to compete with men, to wait quietly until called. Naturally, in male-dominated environments the first and few women may feel like imposters; many will be unlikely to seek out potential mentors. The recent Naval War College study revealed that in 82 percent of cases, key mentorships got started because the mentor—usually a man—noticed a talented junior sailor or officer and took the lead in initiating a productive relationship. 16

We are not asking men to mentor women exclusively or to ignore talented junior men. Far from it. Men must simply open their eyes, recognize some of the talented women around them, and then get busy ensuring these women have equal access to the kinds of game-changing mentorships men commonly take for granted. Often, men fail to realize they are being mentored because it happens “organically” in masculine settings such as on the golf course or after working hours at the club.

Mentoring ‘Best Practices’

How can men overcome biases and anxieties about mentoring women? The secret is simple: frequent interaction and exposure to the opposite sex at work. More than 60 years ago, psychologist Gordon Allport discovered that prejudice is most easily and elegantly overcome by mere contact and exposure to a new group. 17 The more different gender groups can interact—particularly in the service of a common mission—the more comfortable and effective they will be in developing (mentoring) relationships with one another.

Positive mentoring starts with a healthy dose of self-awareness. Discovering our own biases and how we were socialized provides a better understanding of the values, beliefs, and social norms that affect our leadership and mentorship interactions with both men and women. For instance, if men are raised to treat women as delicate creatures, this script could inadvertently undermine a female mentee’s development. Similarly, men who believe a woman’s primary responsibility should be to her children and husband may struggle to provide women with effective career mentoring.

In addition to being introspective, excellent mentors seek to understand their mentees’ perspectives and diverse experiences. By the time a woman arrives in the Fleet, she likely has learned that when it comes to competence, she must consistently “prove it again,” whereas men more often are given a pass based on potential and previous accomplishments. Beyond proving their competence, women also may have to scale the “maternal wall”—being perceived as less committed to their careers just because they are married or because they have the potential to give birth. 18 Male mentors who approach their mentees with the intention of learning about their experiences will be more effective in guiding their mentees.

Excellent and deliberate mentorship of women will benefit female mentees and the inclusive organizations in which they work. But what is in it for men? Those who mentor women report a broadened and improved set of work and interpersonal skills. 19 Think of it as diversifying your leadership tool box. Not only does mentoring women expand skills that make men better leaders and mentors, but it also gives them a wider and more diverse network of relationships at work. Successful mentors who find themselves at the higher echelons of the organization also maintain a connection to the deckplates. Information is vital to a leader in today’s military, and a diverse network of talented mentees allows for more open lines of communication and the opportunity to learn. In the end, men who expand their mentoring relationships to include women are better for it. We predict they will be better sons, brothers, husbands, and fathers.

Fully integrating women? All it takes is a few good men.

1. Cedric Herring, “Does Diversity Pay? Race Gender, and the Business Case for Diversity,” American Sociological Review, vol. 74, no. 2 (April 2009), 208-224. Mady Wechsler Segal, CAPT David G. Smith, USN, David R. Segal, and LCDR Amy A. Canuso, USN, “The Role of Leadership and Peer Behaviors in the Performance and Well-Being of Women in Combat: Historical Perspectives, Unit Integration, and Family Issues,” Military Medicine, vol. 181, (January 2016), 28-33.

2. Navy Office of Women’s Policy (2012). Today’s women and tomorrow’s Navy, . .

3. Mady Wechsler Segal et al. “Leadership and Peer Behaviors.”

4. CAPT David G. Smith, USN, and Judith E. Rosenstein, “Gender and the Military Profession: Early Career Influences, Attitudes, and Intentions,” Armed Forces and Society, (January 2016) 1-20.

5. Smith and Rosenstein, “Gender and the Military Profession”; Sapna Cheryan, John Oliver Siy, Marissa Vichayapai, Benjamin Drury, and Saenam Kim, “Do Female and Male Role Models Who Embody STEM Stereotypes Hinder Women’s Anticipated Success in STEM?” Social Psychological and Personality Science, vol. 2, no. 6 (November 2011), 656-664.

6. Laura Smart Richman, Michelle VanDellen, and Wendy Wood, “How Women Cope: Being a Numerical Minority in a Male-Dominated Profession,” Journal of Social Issues, vol. 67, no. 3, (2011) 492-509.

7. Smith and Rosenstein, “Gender and the Military Profession.”

8. W. Brad Johnson and Charles Ridley, The Elements of Mentoring (New York,: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), 88-99.

9. Johnson and Ridley. The Elements of Mentoring; W. Brad Johnson and Gene R. Anderson, “How to Make Mentoring Work,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, vol. 135, no. 4 (April 2009), 26-32.

10. Lillian Eby, Tammy Allen, Sarah Evans, Thomas Ng, and David DuBois, “Does Mentoring Matter? A Multidisciplinary Meta-Analysis Comparing Mentored and Non-Mentored Individuals,” Journal of Vocational Behavior, vol. 72 (2008) 254-267.

11. W. Brad Johnson and Gene R. Andersen, “Mentoring in the U.S. Navy: Experiences and Attitudes of Senior Navy Personnel,” Naval War College Review, vol. 68, no. 3 (Summer 2015), 76-90.

12. Johnson and Andersen. “Mentoring in the U.S. Navy,” 80.

13. Sylvia Ann Hewlett, Kerrie Peraino, Laura Sherbin, and Karen Sumberg, “The Sponsor Effect: Breaking Through the Last Glass Ceiling.” Cambridge: Harvard Business Review (2010), 45.

14. Ibid.

15. Sarah Mimms, “Why Some Male Members of Congress Won’t Be Alone with Female Staffers,” Atlantic, 14 May 2015, .

16. Johnson and Andersen. “Mentoring in the U.S. Navy.”

17. Gordon Allport, The Nature of Prejudice (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1954), 58-59.

18. Joan C. Williams and Rachel Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work: Four Patterns Working Women Need to Know (New York: NYU Press, 2014), 25-25, 128.

19. Kathryn Taafe McLearn, Diane Colasanto, and Cathy Schoen, Mentoring Makes a Difference: Findings from the Commonwealth Fund: 1998 Survey of Adults Mentoring Young People, 1998, .

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